Rama Empire, 10 000 B.C. – 2 500 B.C.
Like the beginnings of the Mesopotamian culture, the Ancient Rama Empire (commonly referred to as the Indus Civilization) of India is shrouded in mystery. For years, ancient India was thought to have only dated back about 200 years prior to Alexander the Great’s invasion of the area, about 500 B.C. However, discoveries of ancient cities like Mohenjo Daro (Mound of the Dead) and Harappa have led researchers to believe that the civilization must date back much further than originally thought. In fact, the estimated date has been pushed back thousands of years. These cities are located in what is now modern day Pakistan.
The cities they discovered are so intricate that they believe they must have been planned before they were developed, exhibiting an early form of city planning. In fact, they even had a plumbing/sewage system that is more advanced than some found today. Nearly every house had a bathing area and drainage system, and wells were located throughout the city. The cities they found do not have any identifying characteristics like the well-known architecture found in Grecian structures or any artistic monuments. There is no discernible seat of government either. It appears that the culture must have highly valued planning, cleanliness, and order. It even has a Great Bath in the center of the city, which indicates their emphasis on cleanliness.
Like the Mayans, it is unclear what drove this civilization away from their homes. There is no indication of flooding, and the city was not completely abandoned. One theory is that the nearby Indus River changed course, but that still does not explain the end of a civilization. Another recurring theory is that the civilization was destroyed by an “early nuclear warfare,” but this is extremely unlikely.
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